Chinese officials have not formally disclosed that they are conducting the reviews, and their existence has not been previously confirmed outside of rare, brief mentions in local news media.
It is not clear specifically what Chinese authorities are demanding as part of the process. There is no indication that foreign companies have provided access to highly guarded material such as source code — the digital underpinnings of software — or other commercial secrets.
One Chinese media report implied that the tech security reviews began early last year. Over the last nine months, a number of companies have been called in, the people who spoke on the condition of anonymity said.
The lack of disclosure by China’s government has made it hard for the United States government to voice its objections, and has fed concerns that China is quietly carrying out further policies to target American technology companies.
China’s Internet regulators suggested the possibility of reviews three years ago, after revelations by Edward J. Snowden, the former National Security Agency contractor, concerning surveillance escalated tensions between China and the United States over computer security.
Since then, China has quietly begun carrying out the reviews. That represents a shift in the way China manages foreign technology. Its previous efforts came through proposed new rules and other public measures that let foreign companies and governments resist.
The Cyberspace Administration of China said in a faxed response to questions that many countries carried out security reviews and that the inspections did not target any particular country or product.
China relies on American technology products, even as it has made clear that it is concerned about the security of those products. A majority of Chinese government offices, state-owned enterprises and other institutions that handle potentially secret information, like universities and research institutes, use Microsoft Windows. Most smartphones in China run software made by either Apple or Google. And the high-end computing that supports China’s banks, energy companies and military uses, in part, American-designed chips and servers.
In a congressional hearing last month, Apple’s general counsel, Bruce Sewell, said the Chinese government had asked the company to share source code in the last two years but that Apple had refused.
Apple has seen new pressure in China as regulators have shut down its iBooks and iTunes Movies stores there. Last week, Apple disclosed that it was investing $1 billion in the Chinese ride-hailing app Didi Chuxing, a move that some technology experts said appeared aimed at currying favorwith Beijing.
Chinese restrictions against American companies have been a highly charged diplomatic issue. Last year, the Obama administration raised concerns about Chinese rules that trade groups said were written to wean the country’s banking industry off foreign technology. The United States also objected to an antiterrorism law that called for foreign companies tohand over encryption keys in China. In both cases China relented, temporarily scrapping the banking laws and tempering the language in the antiterrorism law.
China’s tougher tone is part of a broader challenge that governments around the world are posing to the technology industry over issues like privacy and encryption. In the United States, federal law enforcement officials have pressed Apple to help them gain access to encrypted iPhones even as the Obama administration has resisted Chinese policies that would require similar access.
Under President Xi Jinping, China has taken steps to keep tabs on technology from American companies and reduce the nation’s dependence on it.
In a speech last month, Mr. Xi outlined what he described as the two prevalent viewpoints on tech policy in China. Under one, the country would continue with an industrial policy intended to absorb technology from foreign companies and ensure products are “secure and controllable.” That phrase, companies and industry groups said, could include such measures as giving the Chinese government access to systems, providing encryption keys or handing over source code.
For foreign companies, the other option could be worse.
“One viewpoint holds that we must close ourselves off, make a fresh start, thoroughly shake off our reliance on foreign technology and rely on indigenous innovation to pursue development,” Mr. Xi said, according to a transcript of the speech. “Otherwise, we would always follow in the footsteps of others, and would never be able to catch up.”
Mr. Xi ultimately said China must find a middle ground and determine “which things can be imported but have to be secure and controllable; which things may be imported, digested and absorbed for re-innovation; which things can be developed in collaboration with others; and for which things we must rely on our own strength and indigenous innovation.”
Read more at The New York Times